He amplifies the ancient teachings of Plato and the Stoics of a universal Divine Mind. It is this Divine Mind, the 'Over-soul', within which every man's particular being is contained and made one with all other. We live in succession, in division, in parts, in particles. Meantime within man is the soul of the whole; the wise silence; the universal beauty, to which every part and particle is equally related: the eternal ONE. We see the world piece by piece, as the sun, the moon, the animal, the tree; but the whole, of which these are the shining parts, is the soul.
Margaret Fuller (23 May 1810 - 19 July 1850) of Cambridge, Massachusetts was a critic, teacher, and woman of letters whose efforts to 'civilise' and enrich the lives of her contemporaries make her significant in the history of American culture. She is particularly remembered for her landmark book
Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), which examined the place of women within society. From 1840 to 1842 she was editor of the Transcendentalists' journal, The Dial. She wrote poetry, reviews, and critiques for the quarterly publication.
In Boston, for five winters (1839-44), she conducted classes of "conversations" for women on literature, education, mythology, and philosophy. Woman in the Nineteenth Century, was a missive on feminism that called for political equality and the emotional, intellectual and spiritual fulfilment of women.
In its pages, Fuller urges young women to seek greater independence from the home and family and to obtain such independence through education. She advocated the reform of property laws that were unfair to women.
And the book's frank discussions of marriage and relations between men and women scandalised many. The first edition of the book sold out in a week and sparked a heated debate, bringing issues of women's rights to the nation's attention.George Ripley. courtesy of Wikipedia
George Ripley (3 October 1802 - 4 July 1880) of Greenfield, Massachusetts, was a journalist and reformer. He was the leading promoter and director of Brook Farm - the celebrated utopian community at West Roxbury, Massachusetts, and a spokesman for the utopian socialist ideas of the French social reformer Charles Fourier. Ripley became literary critic for the New York Tribune, and his articles and reviews were widely syndicated.
Ripley was raised as an orthodox Congregationalist, but became a Unitarian minister upon graduation in 1826 from Harvard Divinity School. While pastor of Boston's Purchase Street Church, he was a member of the Transcendentalists' Club and an editor of The Dial, the organisation's "little magazine."
In 1841 Ripley left the pulpit to found the Brook Farm community. For six years he directed Brook Farm until 1847, when financial setbacks forced it to close. Ripley was thrown into dire financial straits - and remained so until publication of The Cyclopedia (1862), a widely acclaimed reference book that he co-edited.
Amos Bronson Alcott (29 November 1799 - 4 March 1888) of Wolcott, Connecticut was a philosopher, teacher, reformer, and member of the Transcendentalist group. The self-educated son of a poor farmer, Alcott establised a series of schools for children. His educational theories were in part influenced by the Swiss reformer Johann H. Pestalozzi, but owed more to that of Socrates and the Gospels. His aim was to stimulate thought and "awaken the soul".Amos Bronson Alcott. courtesy of Wikipedia
Unfortunately his initiatives were not widely supported and he was forced to close the famous Temple School in Boston and sell its contents to meet his debts. With money given to him by Ralph Waldo Emerson he was able to visit England where a school near London - Alcott House - was named in his honour. Upon his return, with the mystic Charles Lane, they founded a short-lived Utopian community in Massachusetts - Fruitlands.
Intensely spiritual, Alcott was a vegetarian, an abolitionist, and ardent supporter of women's rights. Always poor or in debt, he did not attain financial security until the literary success of his second daughter, Louisa May Alcott and the popularity of his lectures on the lyceum circuit.
The rise of the Transcendentalists coincided with a Renaissance in American literature, a period from the 1830s until the end of the Civil War. Boston was the epicentre of the movement and the literary scene was dominated by a group known as the 'Brahmins' - notably Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes and James Russell Lowell. Other imaginative writers to emerge at this time were Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville and Walt Whitman - their novels and poetry left a profound mark on American literature.Whitman at 50. courtesy of Wikipedia
Walt Whitman (31 May 1819 - 26 March 1892) of West Hills, New York poet, essayist and journalist. As a humanist, he represented the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. He is best known for his poetry collection, Leaves of Grass, an epic which attempts to reach out to the common person. He continued expanding and revising it until his death. One of the most influential American poets of all time, Mary Whitall Smith Costelloe contends "You cannot really understand America without Walt Whitman, without Leaves of Grass ... He has expressed that civilisation, 'up to date,' as he would say, and no student of the philosophy of history can do without him."
In an article in Quest magazine, the journal of the Theosophical Society in America, Walter Raubicheck, Professor of English at Pace University in New York, proffers the opinion that Whitman was a theosophist, even though his greatest poem, 'Song of Myself' was published 20 years before the founding of the Theosophical Society in 1875. Raubicheck believes that "The principles of Theosophy underlie all the central images and themes of the poem. Throughout the poem, every use of the words 'I,' 'Soul,' 'Self,' and 'Body' is consistent with the ideas brought forth in the writings of Helena P. Blavatsky, A. P. Sinnett, and William Q. Judge, three Theosophical contemporaries of Whitman's.
"Whitman certainly drew on his own mystical experiences when creating this poem and indeed all the poems that comprised his one, ever-expanding volume of poetry, Leaves of Grass. However, in attempting to understand these experiences, he drew upon his readings in Hindu scriptures and the writings of Western mystics such as Swedenborg and Whitman's own contemporary, Emerson. The result was an astonishing body of work, which I believe is the nineteenth century's most important literary expression of 'cosmic consciousness'."
Whitman communicates his intensely personal vision drawing on a variety of spiritual traditions - including the Vedas, the Koran and the Christian Bible. His 'theology' - in common with that of the Theosophical Society - includes all faiths to reveal the thread of truth contained with them all.
Betekent het volstrekte ophouden, de abslute nietigheid.
Zelf het zaad bestaat niet meer, alles is oogehouden. Het uitdoven van de vlam.
Het is de ruimte zelf, de tijd zelf. Het is het bestaan en het niet-bestaan; dat maakt geen verschil.
Omdat het overal is, kun je beide termen gebruiken.
Alleen ervaringen hebben betekenis.
Alleen wanneer je iets van de zeven lichamen hebt ervaren, zal het enige betekenis voor je hebben.